Getting Started With Metasploit On Kali Linux

Metaspolit is a very powerful tool that will allow you to exploit certain vulnerabilities within target machines. It comes already installed on Kali Linux, but there’s a few things you need to do at the command line before you can get started.

PREREQUISITES

  1. You should have a Linux Live drive boot already
  2. You should have a connection to a LAN or WAN
  3. Know the IP address range of the network you are targeting

In this tutorial we will be exploiting the afp module for a macintosh computer running on our LAN. We will use the afp_server_info module in metasploit to find out more details about our target machine.

STEP 1
The first step is to find out information about our target network. Run an arp scan on the network you are targeting. with the following command
arp-scan 192.168.0.1/24
You can change the IP address range to match the network you wish to scan. After running this you will be presented with all the devices connected to the network.
01_arpScanYou can see that we have several devices connected to our network.

Next we will find out what services and ports are open on which machines using nmap :-
nmap -sS -A 192.168.0.1/24 -v
02_nmapScan

After running this scan you will be able to look at the results and identify the IP address of a machine that has several open ports. These open ports are what we will use to exploit, so the more ports a specific machine has open the better. Once you have identified this we will run one final scan on the specific target machine :-
nmap -sS -A 192.168.0.10 -vv
03_nmapTarget

STEP 2
Now we have identified our target machine we can setup our database which will be used by metasploit. Open up a new terminal window and run the following :-
service postgresql start
su postgres
createuser nick -P
createdb msfproj2 –owner=nick
exit
(choose your own username and database name and password)
04_setupDB

STEP 3
Now we are ready to start the metasploit program by running the msfconsole command
05_startMsfconsole

Once msfconsole is loaded, we need to connect to the database we just created.
db_disconnect
db_connect nick:<your password>@localhost/<your db name>
06_dbConnect

Now we need to setup a new workspace.
workspace -a newproject
workspace “newproject”

To check that everything is setup properly run :-
db_status
workspace

The results of these two commands should show that your postgresql is connected to the correct database.
07_testSetup

STEP 4
Now we have metaspoilt setup and connected to our database we can run nmap again on our target network, but this time it will write the results to be saved into the database :-
db_nmap -sS 192.168.0.1/24 -vv
08_nmapScanDb
09_nmapScanComplete

Once the scan is complete we can run the command hosts to be shown a list of devices connected to the network.
10_hostList

the services command will display all the services that are running on the network which we can exploit. When you find a service you want to exploit, you can check if metaspoilt has any exploits for this service by using the search <service name> command
11_servicesListSearch

In this case we have identified the afp service that we wish to exploit. There are several modules for afp that we can use.  We are going to do a very basic “attack” to gain more information about the computer on the network.
use auxiliary/scanner/afp/afp_server_info
01_afpServices

after loading this module, we need to view the options. show options  command will do this for us. You can see that it also lists which of these options are mandatory under the “required” column. In the case of the afp_server_info module all options are required. Two are already filled in by default. Check that the port matches the port that was listed under the services list. If this is already setup OK, we only ned to add RHOSTS which will be the IP address of the target machine, of a range of IP addresses. We are targeting machine 192.168.0.10 so we will run the command set RHOSTS 192.168.0.10
02_afpOptions

We are now finally ready to run the module, simply use the command run or exploit and the module will run giving it’s results as shown below.
03_capture

The above shows details about our target machine, it’s network/server name, the type of machine etc. This information can be useful for us when planning further penetration attacks on this machine.

SUMMARY
So that’s a very brief and basic introduction to metasploit framework. It covers just a fraction of what this very powerful program is capable of doing. In later tutorials we will be going deeper into metasploit and what it can do. In the next tutorial we will be doing another function with the afp exploit to crack the password for the user.

Cracking WPA PSK With Kali Linux On Macbook

If you are running this on a Macbook and are having troubles putting the wireless device into monitor mode, then you need to follow my previous tutorials regarding this. If you’re running this on another machine then chances are you can use the airmon-ng start wlan0 command to switch to monitoring mode.

For the rest of this tutorial I will assume we are working on a macbook pro and that the wireless monitoring device is called prism0. 

STEP 1

  • Check that you have monitoring mode enabled. Run ifconfig or iwconfig to check on this.
    iwconfig
  • In the above screen shot you can see that we have the prism0 wireless device. This is our monitoring mode device on the macbook.

STEP 2

  • Run airodump-ng with options to write to a captured file. We will name this capture file “capture”
    airodump-ng
  • Once airodump is running, we need to identify which wireless network we wish to crack. For this tutorial we are looking for a WPA type with a PSK. I’ve setup a wireless network for us to crack with these requirements, you can see two in the below screenshot. We need to run airodump until we have captured a WPA handshake. Once a handshake has been captured it will show in the top row, as illustrated below. (This means waiting for someone to connect to the access point. If you don’t want to wait you can force a de-authentication of a device connected to the network and hope they reconnect)handshake
  • If you wish to make a forced disconnection in order to capture the handshake you can execute the following :-
     aireplay-ng -0 1 -a 3C:DF:A9:68:E6:56 -c 60:03:08:64:D5:C3 prism0
    
    where -a is the mac ID of the base station and -c is the mac ID of the device you wish to de-authenticate.

STEP 3

  • Once you have captured a handshake packet on the access point we wish to hack you can proceed to the next step, which is cracking the password. We are using a brute force method, which can take some time, but basically means running through a dictionary of words and finding which works. This can take hours, and there’s no guarantee that the password is in your dictionary. There’s many free online dictionaries in .txt format you can use. For the purposes of testing however you can use a password that you know is in your dictionary as we are just doing this for a learning experience.
  • Run aircrack-ng and you will see a list of options. We need to input two options, the first is the BSSID of the network you wish to crack, the other is the path to the dictionary you will be using.aircrack-ng
  • Finally input the path to the capture file.
    aircrack-ng -b 3C:Df:A9:66:E6:56 -w /root/Documents/Dictionarys/passwords.txt /root/Documents/CapturedPackets/capture-01.cap
    aircrack-ng_2
  • After hitting enter if everything is done correctly aircrack will begin running through the dictionary. Now it’s just a matter of waiting until it finds the correct password
    cracking
  • Here’s the final cracked password
    cracked

Quick and easy Linux USB Live drive for Mac OSX

In my last post I went through the details of partitioning and setting up your Linux USB live drive with persistence, specifically for Kali Linux.

If you’re already familiar with partitioning the drive then you can continue, if not I advise you to check my previous posting and come back here later.

So I am assuming you already have a FAT partition on your USB thumb drive that is around 4GB in size. All you need to do now is download the file at this link. These files are what is created by the free tool “Mac Linux USB Loader

After you extract thee files, copy the whole root folder (titled efi) to your USB drive partition. Inside the efi folder, is another folder called boot. Inside this you you will find several files. All you now need to do is download the Kali Linux .iso image file. Rename the downloaded file to be “boot.iso” and then copy this inside the boot folder on the USB thumb drive. That’s pretty much all there is to it, go ahead and reboot your mac holding down the option key and you should have the efi boot menu as an option from where you can boot into your Linux distribution.

In theory this will work with any Debian based Linux (such as Ubuntu for example). You just follow the same procedure. There will be some manual editing required to the enterprise.cfg file so that the correct Linux distribution name is displayed but this is easily done within text edit on OSX.

In the files that I have provided the enterprise.cfg file has been edited already to allow for persistence booting of Kali Linux, so that the changes you make and files you create are saved for the next session. However, in order to make this function work there are a few procedures you need to follow in addition to the above. This involves creating a new partition for storing the persistence data on, and creating a mount point for this. All of this procedure can be found here.

The video below also gives a comprehensive overview of setting up the Kali Linux USB Live Drive as well as partitioning the disk correctly and configuring the persistence partitions.

REFERENCES :-

http://docs.kali.org/downloading/kali-linux-live-usb-persistence

https://sevenbits.github.io/Mac-Linux-USB-Loader/